On the afternoon of December 9, the Technical Committee of the China Urban Heating Association, the Urban Energy Planning Professional Committee, and the Building Energy Efficiency Research Center of Tsinghua University co-sponsored a seminar on "China's Clean Heating Model 2025". Prof. Fu Lin made a keynote report on "China's Clean Heat Supply 2025 Mode" at the meeting . This report not only received the approval of experts, but also received widespread attention from domestic thermal power peers. To this end, China Electric Power News made a special report on the content of this meeting.

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Exploring China's Clean Heating Model 2025

Two goals, three effects, four changes, five characteristics

In recent years, clean heating has been a hot issue in China. Although countries such as Europe with advanced district heating are currently developing advanced fourth-generation heating technology, this technology is based on low-temperature operation of end users and is not suitable for heating in China. To this end, under the guidance of Academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and Tsinghua University Professor Jiang Yi, Professor Fu Lin of the Tsinghua University Building Energy Conservation Research Center led a research group that, after more than 10 years of research, comprehensively launched a new generation of northern town heating mode-"China Clean Supply Hot 2025 "(referred to as" 2025 mode ").

"In the future, China's heat supply will focus on the two goals of clean low-carbon and low-cost, and strive to achieve the three major effects of '90% energy saving, 90% emission reduction, and cost equivalent to coal-fired boilers ', to achieve' low-grade waste heat, three-tier network , Energy station, energy storage + heat pump 'four major changes, highlighting the' low return water temperature, waste heat utilization, cogeneration of heat and power, gas terminal peak shaving, long-distance heating '' five characteristics, this is the '2025 model'. "Recently, China The Technical Committee of the Town Heating Association (hereinafter referred to as the Heating Association) held a special seminar on "China's Clean Heating 2025 Mode" in Beijing, and Fu Lin introduced his comprehensive vision and solutions for future Chinese heating.

Regarding the "2025 model", Jiang Yi commented: "This model is economically feasible and has outstanding social benefits. It provides a comprehensive solution for clean heating in urban areas in northern China, and points out the direction for the future development of urban heating in China." At the seminar, the "2025 model" was unanimously approved by government authorities, experts and scholars in the heating sector, colleagues in associations, and leaders of heating companies.

China's clean heating needs a different path than abroad

The reporter learned from the meeting that China currently consumes about 200 million tons of standard coal for heating every year. Coal is still the main primary energy source for heating, accounting for about 77%. At the same time, China has abundant waste heat resources. On the one hand, existing coal-fired power plants have a large amount of waste heat resources. The existing installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the north is about 800 million kilowatts, of which 400 million kilowatts of coal-fired power plants can provide 12 billion square meters of waste heat. On the other hand, during the winter heating period, the low-grade industrial waste heat in the northern central heating area is about 4 billion Gigajoules, of which 1.5 billion Gigajoules are recovered, which can provide basic heating loads for 5 billion square meters of buildings.


The heating network is popular in cities and towns in the north of China, and there is a centralized heating network from large cities to small towns. "In 2050, the heating area of northern cities and towns is estimated to be 20 billion square meters. The waste heat from power plants and industrial waste heat can cover about 80% of the heating area. Independent gas boiler rooms and electric heat pumps will be developed in areas that are difficult to cover by heat networks. "China should adopt a low-carbon heating development model different from foreign countries based on these national conditions."

Fu Lin believes that "2025 model" should have the following five characteristics:

The first is to reduce the temperature of the return water and adopt a three-stage pipe network to create conditions for recycling low-grade waste heat;

The second is to use low-grade waste heat, including waste steam waste heat recovery in power plants, flue gas waste heat recovery, industrial waste heat utilization, etc .;

Third, long-distance heat supply, the power plant efficiently recovers the waste heat for heating, which can significantly reduce the cost of heating power at the exit of the power plant. After long-term transmission to large cities with large temperature differences, the overall heating cost is still lower than traditional combined heat and power, coal-fired boilers and gas boilers

The fourth is the cogeneration of heat and power. The cogeneration operation of the heat and power plant is performed on the power source side. The heat and power plant regulates the peak power generation of renewable energy sources while providing stable and efficient heating. On the demand side, electric heat pumps are combined with heat storage devices to accept grid dispatching operations and realize electricity Load peak clipping and valley filling;

Fifth, the peak adjustment of the gas end, when the industrial load fluctuates, the peak adjustment of the gas can ensure stable heating.

Fu Lin suggested that the waste heat of the power plant and industrial waste heat with a large initial investment and low operating cost can be used to support the basic heating load, and the gas with a small initial investment and expensive gas can be used for peak heating. Peaking ratio. Gas peaking should be close to the end, not only for heat source peaking, but also for heating network peaking, which improves the economy, flexibility and reliability of the heating network.

The above five characteristics will bring four major changes to the heating industry:

One is to replace coal combustion with a low-grade heat source based on waste heat to achieve "near-zero carbon heating";

The second is that the two-stage pipe network is changed to a three-stage pipe network according to the temperature of the return water;

Third, the thermal power station is changed to an energy station, and its function is changed from simple pressure isolation heat exchange to reducing the temperature of the return water of the heating network, heat source peak regulation and pressure isolation;

The fourth is the combination of energy storage and heat pump to achieve thermoelectric coordination.

In Fu Lin's view, if the "2025 model" is fully rolled out, China's heating supply is expected to achieve three major effects: energy consumption will be reduced by 90% compared to boilers, pollution and carbon emissions will be reduced by 90% compared to natural gas, and the overall cost is equivalent to coal-fired boilers.

Gathering consensus to promote the implementation of "2025 model"

"Promoting building energy conservation and clean heating must be carried out in accordance with the idea of" integrated energy conservation ". The four specific criteria are 'clean supply, conservation, sustainable and sustainable'. The '2025 model' proposed by Fu Lin is very A good implementation of the above ideas and standards will promote the low-carbon, clean, efficient, safe, and economic development of our heating industry. "Said Ni Jiangbo, inspector of the Standard Quota Division of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development.

Regarding the low-grade waste heat supply mentioned by Fu Lin, Jiang Yixie said, "If the existing and future coal-fired power plants can be converted into cogeneration, and the waste heat will be collected through a new process, then The supplementary collection of industrial waste heat from northern iron and steel plants, cement plants, chemical plants, building materials plants, etc., except for those that cannot be collected, can also guarantee more than 70% of urban basic heating in cities above the county level. "

Liu Shuiyang, chairman of Beijing Thermal Power Group Co., Ltd. believes: "How to implement the" 2025 model "is the key. In addition to working on heat sources, heating networks, and building energy conservation, China's clean heating needs to achieve low carbon, and it can also change the people's Starting with the concept of heat, we will reduce and eliminate the overheating phenomenon that exists in most heating companies, and promote the use of heat and energy. "

"The" 2025 model "has good environmental and social benefits, but the economic persuasive power is not enough. How to calculate the economic value and input-output ratio of the project transformation over the entire life cycle? Does the promotion of the" 2025 model "rely on market-oriented behavior or Government-led? Need to be further improved and supplemented, "suggested Wu Desheng, a professor-level senior engineer at Beijing Architectural Design & Research Institute Co., Ltd.

Beijie Energy Co., Ltd. professor-level senior engineer Duan Jieyi said: "To promote the '2025 model', technology is the first driving force, but in the end, to form a benign situation of policy guidance and market pull, we must clarify the economic account and realize the benefits of thermal enterprises. Graphical. "

"China is one of the most water-scarce countries in the world. Heating is inseparable from water resources. Promoting clean heating must not only consider coal control, low carbon, and energy conservation, but also include water conservation." Jiang Yi added .

"From the perspective of planning, let limited energy play the greatest benefit." Pan Yiling, deputy dean of Beijing Urban Planning and Design Institute said.

Sun Yuqing, Chairman of Mudanjiang Thermal Power Co., Ltd., said: "Clean heating in rural areas is long-term, arduous, and complex, making it available, affordable, good, and sustainable for the people. It should be a fundamental principle followed by all regions. Implement the meaning and the urgent task of the "2025 model". "

"Converting coal to electricity has made a significant contribution to the management of haze. We still need to advance the clean heating technology route according to local conditions, and correctly understand and implement the principles of" if electricity is electricity, if gas is gas, if coal is coal, and if heat is hot ". "Ma Yitai, a professor at Tianjin University, analyzed," Air source heat pumps should encourage innovation and further improve energy efficiency, so as to be better promoted and applied. "

Source: Deng Zhuokun of China Electric Power News