70th Anniversary Gifts-Review of China's Heating Industry Achievements
Release Date: 2019-10-09
Laying the foundation (1949-1979)
In the early days of the founding of the People's Republic of China, the heating method of the common people for a long time was mainly "southern basin and northern sedge". It is both a heating facility and a winter cooking stove. The fuel is mainly firewood. In the cold weather, it is supplemented by a small stove, which burns coal blocks and coal briquettes that appear later-that is, primary briquettes made by mixing coal powder with loess.
Heating mode and scale
位于北京东交民巷的俄国道胜银行采用低压蒸汽锅炉供暖，是北京历史上第一家采用锅炉供暖的单位。 In 1886, Russia's Daosheng Bank , located in Beijing's Dongjiaomin Lane, used low-pressure steam boilers for heating. It was the first unit in Beijing history to use boilers for heating.
北京市全市房屋面积有2050万平方米，约有103万平方米分散的锅炉供暖，占全部建筑的5%。 When the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, the city's housing area was 20.5 million square meters, with about 1.03 million square meters of scattered boiler heating, accounting for 5% of all buildings. Heating is limited to a small number of governments and public welfare institutions. The vast majority of citizens still use small stoves, fire pits, and local rafters for heating.
北京市房屋建筑已由1949年的2050万平方米增加到3119万平方米，有2100座分散的小锅炉房供热， 供热面积825.5万平方米，占26% ，其余74%由小火炉取暖。 In 1955, Beijing's housing construction had increased from 20.5 million square meters in 1949 to 31.19 million square meters. There were 2100 scattered small boiler rooms for heating. The heating area was 8.255 million square meters, accounting for 26% , and the remaining 74% Small stove for heating.
Technical academic level
Before the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, several iron factories in Beijing could undertake boiler and plumbing installation business.
结合苏联援建的大量工程的需要，以设计院为主的各有关供热技术人员全面开始学习苏联的供热和暖通技术。 In the early 1950s, combining the needs of a large number of projects aided by the Soviet Union, various related heating technicians, mainly design institutes, began to learn the heating and HVAC technology of the Soviet Union.
，选用苏联的教材，自1954年起，逐步向有关单位输送经过系统教育的毕业生。 In 1952, Tsinghua University established a major in heating and ventilation in the Department of Civil Engineering , and selected Soviet textbooks. Since 1954, it has gradually sent graduates with systematic education to relevant units.
From 1949 to 1952, 3.85 million square meters of various buildings were newly built in Beijing, some of which had their own boiler rooms and heating facilities. ，中华人民共和国水力电力部还确定了发展热电联产的政策 。 Especially during the first five-year plan for the development of the national economy in China, the Ministry of Water Resources and Electric Power of the People's Republic of China also established a policy for the development of combined heat and power . ，以发展热化事业。 The main tasks of the first five-year plan of the Ministry of Water and Electricity of the People's Republic of China clearly include the growth figures of power generation and heat supply; it is determined in the technical policy that industrial thermal power plants and industrial and municipal public heat Thermal power plant to develop heating business.
（1953年-1957年），在北京、保定、石家庄、郑州、洛阳、西安、兰州、太原、包头、长春、吉林、哈尔滨等城市建设了一批热电厂 ，向工业、住宅区供应工业生产用热和生活用热，这些热电厂的建设， 奠定了我国城市集中供热发展的基础 。 During the "One Five-Year Plan" period (1953-1957), a number of thermal power plants were built in Beijing, Baoding, Shijiazhuang, Zhengzhou, Luoyang, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Taiyuan, Baotou, Changchun, Jilin, Harbin and other cities. The district supplies industrial production heat and domestic heat. The construction of these thermal power plants has laid the foundation for the development of urban central heating in China .
，北京市都市规划委员会聘请了苏联的供热专家，在指导编制城市供热规划的同时，系统地讲解了热电联产和供热技术。 In 1955 , the Beijing Urban Planning Commission hired Soviet heating experts to explain the combined heat and power and heating technology systematically while directing the preparation of urban heating plans. In order to change the decentralized and backward heating method at that time, the heating plan put development heating first, determined the central heating policy that mainly developed thermal power plants, and was supplemented by regional boiler houses, and formulated the "Beijing Heating Planning Plan" . This is the first relatively complete, informative and specific plan, and it is also the first urban heating plan in Beijing and even in China.
In August 1958, the Beijing Gas Heating Power Company was established. The heating management department set up a heating power team dedicated to heat supply and distribution. In March 1960, a thermal management office was set up to take charge of the heating work. 。 This is China's first institution dedicated to managing urban heating .
， 北京建设第一热电厂，主要供热对象为北京市中心区域民用建筑采暖热负荷，从此我国城市集中供热事业拉开了序幕，这是我国第一个大型城市集中供热工程 。 In 1958, the first thermal power plant was built in Beijing. The main heating object is the heating heat load of civil buildings in the central area of Beijing. Since then, China's urban central heating business has begun, which is the first large-scale urban central heating project in China . The heating medium of Beijing No. 1 Thermal Power Plant is high-temperature hot water, providing users with winter heating and annual domestic hot water heat load. In 1959, the main pipeline of the No. 1 Thermal Power Plant's heat pipe network passed through Beijing Chang'an Street to the Great Hall of the People and the revolutionary history. Heating for museums, ethnic restaurants and other buildings. The total length of the heating network is 18Km, one relay pump station, and the largest pipe diameter is DN700.
北京市城市热网开始研制热网集中监控系统，于1982年建成了无线通讯数据监测系统， 第一次实现中国供热史上热网的计算机监测 。 Beginning in 1974, the Beijing Municipal Heating Network began to develop a centralized monitoring system for heating networks. In 1982, a wireless communication data monitoring system was established, and for the first time, computer monitoring of heating networks in China's heating history was realized . After the reform and opening up, heating companies represented by Beijing learned to introduce heating technology in Northwest Europe, and then mastered the technology of balancing the reasonable distribution of flow, solving the old problems of heating systems for many years.
On September 13, 1979 , the State promulgated the "Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China (Trial)" and actively promoted district heating in cities.
Takeoff moments (1980-1999)
在国家“开发与节约并重，近期把节约放在优先地位”的节约能源方针的指导下， 通过发展热电联产、工业余热和地热利用，大力发展城市集中供热。 At the end of the 1970s, under the guidance of the country's energy conservation policy of “developing and saving, giving priority to saving in the near future ,” vigorously developed urban central heating through the development of combined heat and power, industrial waste heat and geothermal utilization. Since then, the city's centralized heating industry has risen rapidly, and the city's heating network heating development momentum is strong.
Heating mode and scale
The Qinling-Huaihe line is the climatic boundary between North and South China. The Qinling-Huaihe line has also become the dividing line between the northern heating area and the southern heating area in China's heating area.
北方城市有热力管网502公里,实现集中供热面积2252万平方米 ,每年可节煤160余万吨。 According to statistics from 15 cities in the north, in 1981, northern cities had 502 kilometers of heat pipe networks, achieving a central heating area of 22.52 million square meters , which could save more than 1.6 million tons of coal each year. 北方城市集中供热面积达到7103万平方米 ，占比情况如下图： In 1986, the central heating area in northern cities reached 71.03 million square meters , the proportion is as follows:
Take Beijing as an example . In 1949, the heating method of small stoves accounted for 95% of the total area of houses in Beijing. By 1990, it had fallen to 22%. The remaining 78%, except for 9.1%, were central heating for urban heating networks. Boiler heating.
In 1990, Beijing had 176 million square meters of civil construction area. Among them, there are 137 million square meters with heating, and 50.5 million square meters are central heating areas, of which the urban heating network heating area is 16.103 million square meters, and the district boiler room heating area is 4.12 million square meters. The central boiler heating area with a unit boiler capacity of 7 MW and above is 15.292 million square meters, the distributed boiler heating area is 86.75 million square meters, and 39 million square meters are still heated by small stoves.
Beijing's heat supply in 2003 was 2.8 times that of 1990. Between 1991 and 2003, the average heating area increased by 4 million square meters per year, and between 2000 and 2003, the heating area increased by 18.08 million square meters. An average annual increase of 6.03 million square meters.
The scale of central heating in the north is constantly expanding:
Central heating in 10 northern cities in 1980
Central heating in 81 northern cities in 1989
In 2003, 1.321 billion square meters of central heating was provided in 321 northern cities.
The development process of heating presents three major trends
First, the unit boiler capacity has gradually increased;
Second, the number of large boiler rooms has gradually increased;
Third, boiler heating gradually shifts from decentralized management to professional management.
北京电力设计院编制的《北京市供热规划》和1984年北京市公用局和北京规划局编制的《北京市市区集中供热近期规划》中都进一步明确在城市燃料结构以煤为主的条件下，应以热电联产供热为主，区域锅炉房供热为辅，并采用其他多种方式满足城市供热需要。 The "Beijing Heating Plan" prepared by the Beijing Electric Power Design Institute in 1982 and the "Beijing Urban District Centralized Heating Short-term Plan" prepared by the Beijing Public Utilities Bureau and the Beijing Planning Bureau in 1984 both further specify that coal is used Under the main conditions, the combined heat and power supply should be the main source, supplemented by the district boiler room heat supply, and other various methods should be used to meet the urban heat supply needs.
, 国务院批准了建设部、国家计委《关于加强城市集中供热管理工作的报告》，对城市集中供热方针、管理体制、建设资金渠道、价格政策、供热立法和管理工作等提出了意见，明确了方向，为城市供热发展奠定了重要的政策基础。 In February 1986 , the State Council approved the "Report on Strengthening the Management of Centralized Heating in Cities" by the Ministry of Construction and the State Development Planning Commission . The city's central heating policy, management system, construction funding channels, pricing policy, heating legislation and management work were approved . He put forward opinions, clarified the direction, and laid an important policy foundation for the development of urban heating.
Colleagues of heating enterprises throughout the country actively explored the way of heating automation during this period, carried out related domestic and foreign research activities, and laid the foundation for the intelligent development of heating. 。 In 1989, Beijing Thermal Power Company, with the help of Danish experts, formulated the "Beijing Central Heating Monitoring System Program", which was then the first large-scale centralized heating monitoring system in the country .
Picture: Beijing Thermal Exchange and Danish experts exchange learning
Rapid development (2000-2019)
Reform and opening up is the second revolution in China, and the cause of the party and the people is moving forward in a wave of continuous deepening reforms. Especially since the 18th National Congress of the Party, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has pushed forward the comprehensive and deepened reform with unprecedented determination and strength, which has given the Party and the country great vitality and vitality.
，中国供热行业进入快速发展时期。 Since 2000 , China's heating industry has entered a period of rapid development. Under the guidance of national environmental governance, energy conservation and emission reduction, protection of people's livelihood and clean heating policies, urban heating has developed rapidly. Northern cities and towns have basically formed a pattern of central heating as the main supplement and multiple heating methods as a supplement.
In recent years, the state has attached great importance to clean heating in heating areas in the north, and has successively introduced a series of related policies to comprehensively promote "clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient" heating.
The State Council's "Notice on Printing and Distributing Action Plan for Air Pollution Prevention and Control" proposes to accelerate the establishment of centralized heating, "coal to gas" and "coal to electricity", and use electricity in areas where the heating and gas pipeline network cannot be covered. , New energy or clean coal, promote the application of high-efficiency energy-saving environmental protection boilers.
The Notice of the General Office of the State Council on Printing and Distributing Strategic Action Plans for Energy Development (2014-2020) (Guobanfa  No. 31) proposes to promote the transformation of urban and rural energy use. Efforts will be made to develop distributed energy sources, scientifically develop combined heat and power, encourage areas with conditions to develop combined heat, power, and cooling, develop wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal heating, and accelerate the transformation of rural energy use.
Xi Jinping chaired the sixth meeting of the Central Finance and Economics Leading Group and proposed the energy revolution.
Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Substitution of Electric Power by the Eight National Ministries and Commissions:
In the area of residential heating, in northern areas where there is rigid heating demand and areas along the Yangtze River where there is heating demand, emphasis is placed on public buildings with discontinuous thermal loads such as schools, shopping malls, and office buildings that are not covered by gas (thermal) pipeline networks. Promote dispersive electric heating such as carbon crystal and graphene heating devices, heating cables, and electric film to replace coal-fired heating;
Promote regenerative electric boilers, heat pumps, and decentralized electric heating in residential areas in old urban areas, urban-rural junctions, or residential areas with high ecological requirements that cannot be reached by gas (heat) pipeline networks;
In rural areas, focusing on Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and surrounding areas, gradually promote the clean replacement of loose coal, and vigorously promote the use of electricity instead of coal. In areas rich in new energy, use surplus electricity in the trough to implement energy storage heating.
The 14th meeting of the Central Working Group on Finance and Economics decided to promote clean heating in the northern region, requiring the principle of "business-oriented, government-driven, and affordable for residents". It is of great practical significance to guarantee the people's warmth through the winter and improve the atmospheric environment.
The State Council's "Notice on Printing and Distributing the Comprehensive Work Plan for Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction during the 13th Five-Year Plan Period" proposes to promote the optimization of the energy structure.
The "2017 State Council Government Work Report" puts forward: Resolutely fight against the blue sky and fully implement the management of loose coal.
The Ministry of Housing, Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Finance, and Energy Bureau's "Guiding Opinions on Promoting Cleaner Heating in Cities and Towns in Northern Heating Areas" proposes to advance the supply-side reform of heating, vigorously promote the use of clean energy, and accelerate the clean and heating work in cities and towns in northern heating areas.
The Report of the Nineteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China pointed out: Promote green development, establish and improve the economic system of green and low-carbon circular development, build a market-oriented green technology innovation system, develop green finance, and expand energy-saving and environmental protection industries, clean production industries, and clean energy industries. Promote the revolution in energy production and consumption, and build a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient energy system.
The ten ministries and commissions jointly issued the “Clean Heating and Heating Plan for the Winter in the North Region (2017-2021)”, which for the first time proposed to build a complete clean and heating industrial system in the North region in 3-5 years.
"Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Surrounding Areas Autumn-Winter Air Pollution Comprehensive Action Plan for 2018-2019": We must adhere to the "fixing reforms with gas", highlight key areas, and follow the guidelines of Yidian, electricity, gas, coal, and coal. The principle of applying oil to oil is to steadily promote clean heating in winter in the northern region to ensure that the masses are safe and warm through the winter. It is necessary to strengthen the comprehensive control of dust, and do a good job in open-pit mines and straw incineration.
Large scale heating supply. Energy conservation and emission reduction have been promoted in an orderly manner, industry standards and specifications have been continuously improved, service management has been significantly improved, and scientific and technological innovation has achieved remarkable results. The introduction of market mechanisms for heating systems has made gradual progress.
。 Significant energy saving and emission reduction effects . From 2001 to 2017, the heating area of buildings in northern towns increased from 5 billion square meters to 14 billion square meters, the total area increased nearly doubled, and the total energy consumption increased less than doubled. At the same time, the average heating energy consumption per unit area in the northern region decreased from 23Kgce standard coal per square meter in 2001 to 14Kgce standard coal per square meter in 2017, a significant decrease.
Changes in heating energy consumption
It is worth mentioning that the progress of cleaning and heating in some key areas has even exceeded our planned expectations. As of now, the winter clean heating rate in the northern region has reached 50.7%, and about 100 million tons of scattered coal has been replaced. The clean heating rate in 2 + 26 cities is higher, reaching 72%. Among them, the clean heating rate in urban areas has reached 96%, and the clean heating rate in counties and urban-rural junctions has reached 75%. Rural areas are slightly lower and clean The heating rate is 43%.
The level of technical equipment has improved significantly. The level of urban heat supply in China has been greatly improved in terms of education and scientific research, planning and design, engineering construction, operation management, technical equipment, and user services, providing a guarantee for the development of urban heat supply.
The heating capacity is significantly enhanced. In 2016, the urban heating area reached 8.7 billion square meters and the length of heating pipes was 261,000 kilometers.
National urban central heating data in the past 8 years
Data source from 2011 to 2017: "China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook (2017)"
Data source for 2018: Statistics from China Urban Heating Association
Statistics on the Length of Central Heating Pipe Networks in China
北方供暖热源结构对比 Heat source structure change: Comparison of heating source structure in North China in 2013/2018
2013 data from `` 2015 China Building Energy Efficiency Annual Development Research Report '' 2018 data from China Urban Heating Association
Exchanges and cooperation at home and abroad continue to expand. Conduct exchanges and cooperation with Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Italy and other countries to introduce, digest, and attract advanced concepts, technologies, management and equipment for heating and cooling abroad. The domestic heating industry and cross-border exchanges and cooperation have continued to expand, technological progress has further improved, and management levels have been further improved. With the improvement of people's living standards, regions along the Yangtze River that have heating needs, such as Shanghai and Anhui, have also gradually developed heating and cooling.
Heating method and technical level
Current heating system classification by heat source system form and scale
Summary of current clean heating technologies
Source: Based on public information and market research
Looking to the future
Time has passed, years have passed, and 70 years of hard work. New China has broken its reliance on other paths, sticking to its own path, and taking decades to complete the industrialization process that developed countries have completed for hundreds of years. A distinctive modern road. With the continuous improvement of people's living standards, the continuous increase in heating demand, and the continuous strengthening of the environmental protection and governance of the whole society, China's heat supply in the future will be more efficient, low-carbon, intelligent and safe.
In the future, our goal is to- use "green energy", "upgrade of high-end equipment"-to create "clean heating"; to "government, enterprises, equipment manufacturers, users" interconnectivity-to achieve "smart service"
Our development direction——
Focus on building a macro system of urban energy cascade development and utilization and energy supply security;
Construction of a low-carbon centralized heating system based on combined heat and power and industrial waste heat, supplemented by renewable energy;
Strengthening the construction of an emergency guarantee system for urban heating safety;
Explore the road to sustainable development of rural clean heating methods;
Seize the hot and difficult issues in the industry, help the government to deepen the industry reform, and resolve the contradiction between the demand for comfortable heating and unbalanced development of the masses;
Increase technological innovation, promote the transformation of the heating industry from a traditional model to a modern smart heating model, and realize heating in smart cities;
Further deepen the exchanges with international and domestic counterparts, build an expert team leading the technological development of the industry, and increase the reputation and influence of the association at home and abroad;
Implementing the Made in China 2025 strategy, advancing the industry standardization system and international standards, and improving the quality of heating projects and products;
The use of the Internet and big data means to improve the level of service to the government, society and members, and continuously strengthen the cohesion of the association.
In the future, China's heating supply will be transformed from a heating production type to a heating service type. It will also keep up with the pace of the times. Through cross-border integration, the Internet big data will be deeply linked with traditional heating. In order to protect the ecology and protect the harmonious nature To create a beautiful blue sky!
After 70 years of spring and autumn, the new China is flourishing and vigorous, and today China is proudly standing in the east of the world and heading towards the center of the world stage. China in the future needs generations of generations of heating people who will not forget their original intentions, keep their mission in mind, continue their struggles, be guided by Xi Jinping's thoughts of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, adhere to the people-centered development concept, and vigorously promote the glorious tradition and fine work style of enterprises. Carrying forward the past and forging ahead, creating a new and greater miracle of the Chinese nation on the new journey, and creating a new and greater miracle that will make the world look amazing.
In recent years, under the guidance of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China, under the guidance of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, with the support of leaders of the association at all levels, and the coordination and cooperation of various departments, the urban and rural heating industry has completed the original order in an efficient and pragmatic manner. At the same time, in accordance with the country's new requirements for social organizations, it is determined to innovate, bringing the work of the association to a new level in a short period of time, greatly improving the status of the association in the industry.
In the future, the China Town Heating Association will continue to play the role of a bridge in the heating industry, and work with all members to forge ahead and unite together to write a brilliant tomorrow together!
Mission and action are on the way, let us work together to create brilliant on the journey of heating industry development!
May our dear motherland prosper!